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Lesson 1















Automated Internet

Automated Editors

Sample Scripts

Precompiled Functions

System Features

  Help Page - echo

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Command echo Purpose Writes to screen or redirected output or error stream. Aliases Syntax echo [ <options> ] [ <argument> [ <argument> ... ] ] Options -e Write to error stream. With this option, the output of echo command is written to the error stream. Without this option, the output is written to output stream. This option is very useful for inserting debugging messages in scripts. The following is an example. echo -e "DEBUG: Processing file " $fileName -h Writes output in hexadecimal format. With this option, each byte in the output is converted to two hexadecimal digits. All control characters, such as newline, tab, are converted also. Arguments <argument> A constant, a variable, an expression, a function call, an inline function, or any combination of these using operators. Stream Input Ignored. Stream Output Contents of all arguments are produced, if -e option is NOT present. Stream Error Any errors are listed here. Also, contents of all arguments are produced here, if -e option IS present. Description This command lists the contents of various types of arguments. If multiple arguments are specified, contents of each argument is produced. No formatting is used when listing output. This allows you to formt the output to the way you desire. Use formatting characters such as "\t" (tab), "\n" (newline), " " (space), etc. Use double quotes when using formatting characters. If -h (hex) option is used, the output is written in hex format (using hexadecimal digits). Use of parentheses and double quotes is highly recommended. Parentheses specify to the command TO EVALUATE the expression within the parentheses. Double quotes specify to the command NOT TO EVALUATE the text within double quotes. There is NO LIMIT on how many parentheses you can use. Further, there is NO LIMIT on how many levels of parentheses you can use. Restrictions Expressions must be enclosed in parentheses. Valid Examples echo $x Will display the value of variable x. echo "The value of variable x is\n" $x Will write the words "The value of variable x is", then a newline, the the value of $x. var int i ... echo ($i+5) Will display the value of $i plus 5. The value of variable i itself, will remain unaffected. echo -h "Hello, world" Will display the string "Hello, world" in its hexadecimal representation. echo -h $x > "/temp/x.txt" Will write the value of variable x, in its hexadecimal representation, to file /temp/x.txt. Invalid Examples var int i ... echo $i+3 Will produce error. Parentheses must be used around expressions. The following will work. echo ($i+3) See Also set var systemvar repro stream hex

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