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Lesson 1















Automated Internet

Automated Editors

Sample Scripts

Precompiled Functions

System Features

  Help Page - lal

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Command lal Purpose Editor - Line alterer Aliases linealterer, linealt, lal Syntax lal [ <options> ] " [<start_bounder>] <n> [<end_bounder>] " " <alter_string> " <input_string> Options -p Preserve the input string. Without this option, the <alter_string> is substituted into <input_string>. With this option, the <input_string> is left unchanged. -c Case insensitive. Case will be ignored when considering separator characters. -e Consider empty lines. Arguments <input_string> The input string on which this command will operate. It can be specified as a str constant or str variable or an expression resulting in a str value. If a str constant is used, we highly recommend using double quotes around it, such as "John Doe". Without the double quotes, the spaces in the input string will produce errors. In case of a str constant or a str expression, the -p option is assumed. <n> The instance number. The input string will be searched for this instance of the target. Instances are counted from 1. <n> must be either a number higher than 0 or the letter l (which indicates the last instance). <start_bounder> <end_bounder> This argument can either be absent, the character [ or the character ]. The <start_bounder> appears before the <n>. The <end_bounder> appears after the <n>. We will now explain the role of these bounders with an example. We will assume that we are looking for fifth line. "5" Target instance is only the fifth line. "5[" Target instance is everything after but excluding the fifth line. "5]" Target instance is everything upto and including the fifth line. "[5" Target instance is everything beginning with and including the fifth line. "[5[" This combination is INVALID. "[5]" Target instance is only the fifth line. This is same as "5". "]5" Target instance is everything upto but excluding the fifth line. "]5[" This combination is INVALID. "]5]" This combination is INVALID. In all VALID cases, the <alter_string> is replaced (altered) IN PLACE OF the target instance. The double quotes in the command syntax are required. Without the double quotes, an error or erroneous output may be produced. <alter_string> The string to substitute (alter) IN PLACE OF the target instance. Stream Input Stream input is ignored. Stream Output The altered input string is added to stream output. Stream Error Any errors are listed here. Description The command places the <alter_string> IN PLACE OF the target instance. The following system variable plays an important role. $lsep Line separator This variable is used to identify, number, and extract distinct lines. See the 'systemvar' help topic for its description. You can change its value to highly refine your search procedure. We highly recommend that, if you change any system variable's value, you restore it after the search is complete, as many system variables are often used by more than one command. The command CAN ALSO BE USED WITH FILES. Simply read in the contents of the file using the repro command into a str variable. Perform any desired operations on the str variable, then write the str variable back to the file. The following is an example. var str content # Read file. repro myfile.html > $content # Perform the desired operations on $content. . . . # Write the resulting str variable back to file. echo $content >myfile.html This can also work on a collections of files, from which we want to operate on one file at a time. Let's say that we have a list of files in a str variable $fileList. The following is an example of how to do this. var str fileList # Collect the list of file in $fileList. . . . # Operate on files one by one. var str file # Get the first file. lex "1" $fileList > $file while ($file <> "") do # Operate on this file. var str content # Read file. repro $file > $content # Operate on file content. . . . # Write the resulting content back to file. echo $content > { echo $file } # Get the next file. lex "1" $fileList > $file done Note that the output of the echo $content command is redirected to { echo $file } which will actually write the output to the file. If we had redirected the output of the echo $content command to just $file, that would have written the output to the variable $file itself, and not to the actual file whose name is in $file. Restrictions None. Valid Examples var str s ... lal "l" "# The last line" $s # <n> in double quotes is letter l (last). Will replace the last line with "# The last line". Invalid Examples var int i ... lap "l" "# The last line" $i Will produce error. Variable $i is not a str variable. See Also systemvar var echo escape len lex lin lap sal wal chal

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